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INTRODUCTORY   ESSi*.                                105
hilly districts of India and Ceylon. Amongst the more con-
spicuous trees common to Java and India are Sedgwickia
cerasifolia. Griff., a native of Assam, which is undoubtedly
the JLiguidambar Altingia of Blume; Marlea, which spreads
into China on the one hand, and throughout the Himalaya to
the mountains south of Kashmir on the other. The curious
Cardiopteris lobata of Java is also a native of Assam, and
several oaks and chesnuts, Antidesmte, a willow, and Myrica,
have already proved to be common to the Khasia and Java.
3. The China and Japan type.—In the Indian flora we meet
with many temperate genera and species, which are also com-
mon to North America west of the Rocky Mountains, and
which are foreign to Europe, to America east of that range,
and to Western Siberia -, besides many tropical species that
arc also Malayan and West Polynesian. The Chinese type
is abundant in the temperate regions of 'the Himalaya, ex-
tending westward to Garhwal and Kumaon, but is most fully
developed in Sikkim, Bhotan, and the Khasia. Amongst the
most striking examples of its temperate forms in the Hima-
laya, are species of Aucuba, Helwingia', Stachyurus, Enkian-
thus, Abelia, Skimmia, Bucklandia, Adamia, Benthamia, Cory-
lopsiSy genera that have been considered as almost exclusively
Japanese and Chinese, and of most of which there are but so-
litary species known in that country.
Other temperate plants common to India and China are
Microptelea parvifolia (a species of elm) ; Hamamelis Chinen-
sis, found by us in the Khasia; Nymphaa pygm&a, and Vac-
cinium bracteatum, both of which occur in the Khasia; and
Quercus serrata, which is a native of Nepal, Sikkim, and the
Khasia. Besides these cases of absolute identity of species,
many Chinese genera may be noticed. Illidum inhabits the
Khasia, Thea Assam; and Magnolia, Sikkim and Khasia,
Schizandrea arc peculiarly characteristic of the Chinese
Flora, but also extend into Java; Lardizabatece, which at-
tain their maximum of development in the Himalaya, are
Japanese and Chinese, a few only having hitherto been de-